Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa

By Catherine Higgs

“Catherine Higgs’s Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa is an elegantly written, well-illustrated account of the resultant investigations into this so-called new slavery in Africa orchestrated mostly by means of Cadbury and the British international place of work. …[The] research resonates this present day, dealing, because it does, with the customarily tainted overseas origins of our later period of mass consumerism.” —American historic Review

In Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa, Catherine Higgs strains the early-twentieth-century trip of the Englishman Joseph Burtt to the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe—the chocolate islands—through Angola and Mozambique, and at last to British Southern Africa. Burtt were employed via the chocolate company Cadbury Brothers constrained to figure out if the cocoa it used to be purchasing from the islands were harvested by means of slave workers forcibly recruited from Angola, an allegation that grew to become one of many grand scandals of the early colonial period. Burtt spent six months on São Tomé and Príncipe and a 12 months in Angola. His five-month march throughout Angola in 1906 took him from innocence and credulity to outrage and activism and eventually helped swap exertions recruiting practices in colonial Africa.

This fantastically written and fascinating go back and forth narrative attracts on collections in Portugal, the uk, and Africa to discover British and Portuguese attitudes towards paintings, slavery, race, and imperialism. In a narrative nonetheless wide-spread a century after Burtt’s sojourn, Chocolate Islands unearths the idealism, naivety, and racism that formed attitudes towards Africa, even between those that sought to enhance the stipulations of its workers.

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JB to WAC, may possibly 31, 1906, JDC, 208 (first quote); JB to WAC, July 18, 1905, JDC, forty three; JB to WAC, February 12, 1906, one hundred seventy. See additionally JB to WAC, February 12, 1906, CP 5/18; JB to WAC, December 23, 1905, JDC, 153; JB to WAC, may well eight, 1906, JDC, 197, 198 (second quote), 199–200, 206 (third and fourth quotes); JB to WAC, June 12, 1906, 208; Clarence-Smith, Slaves, Peasants and Capitalists, 52–53. forty five. JB to WAC, June 6, 1906, JDC, 209 (quote); JB to WAC, June 12, 1906, JDC, 208; John T. Tucker, Angola: The Land of the Blacksmith Prince (London: global Dominion Press, 1933), sixty six; Thomas Masaji Okuma, Angola in Ferment: The history and clients of Angolan Nationalism (1962; repr. , Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1974), one hundred twenty five; Roland A. Oliver, Sir Harry Johnston and the Scramble for Africa (London: Chatto and Windus, 1957), 31; Duffy, query of Slavery, 174; JB to WAC, July 18, 1906, JDC, forty four. forty six. Duffy, query of Slavery, 171–75; Joseph C. Hartzell, The African venture of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York: Board of the overseas Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1909), 35 (first quote); Heywood, Contested strength, 22; JB to WAC, June 6, 1906, JDC, 211 (second and 3rd quotes); M. Stober to WAC, February 22, 1906, CP 5/12; JB to WAC, July 6, 1906, JDC, 228. forty seven. Henry Woodd Nevinson and Ellis Roberts, hearth of lifestyles (London: James Nisbet, 1935), 161 (first quote); Synopsis of letter from WAC to JB, June 17, 1907, CP 3/53: 428 (second quote); M. Stober to WAC, February 22, 1906, CP 5/12 (third via 5th quotes); WAC to Stober, April 2, 1906, CP 5/12 (sixth quote); Cadbury Brothers Ltd. to Rowntree & Co. Ltd. , August 20, 1906, CP 5/27. forty eight. “A Ilha de S. Thomé: Relatorio do Dr. Strunck,” in A Ilha de S. Thomé e o Trabalho Indigena (Lisbon: Livraria Ferin, 1907), 25; “A Ilha de S. Thomé: Relatorio do Dr. Strunck,” Revista Portugueza Colonial e Maritima 18, no. 109 (September 1906), 255–56; “A Ilha de S. Thomé: Relatorio do Dr. Strunck,” Revista Portugueza Colonial e Maritima, 19, no. 109 (October 1906), 1–8; Henrique José Monteiro de Mendonça, The Boa Entrada Plantations, S. Thomé, Portuguese West Africa, “La Perle des Colonies Portuguaises,” trans. J. A. Wyllie (Edinburgh: Oliphant Anderson and Ferrier, 1907), 21–22; Newitt, “Angola,” 38. forty nine. Jan Georg Deutsch, Emancipation with out Abolition in German East Africa c. 1884–1914 (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), 97–99. 50. Newitt, “Angola,” 38–39; JB to WAC, June 26, 1906, JDC, 217 (first, moment, 3rd, and 5th quotes), 218 (fourth quote); Augusto Nascimento, “Cabindas em São Tomé,” Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos 14–15 (1991): 183–85, 188, 196. fifty one. JB to WAC, June 28, 1906, JDC, 220–22. fifty two. JB to WAC, July eight, 1906, JDC, 224 (quote), 225; JB to WAC, June 28, 1906, JDC, 219; Albino Lapa, O Conselheiro Ramada Curto, Colecção Pelo Império (no. 62), vol. 2 (Lisbon: Agência Geral das Colónias, 1940), forty four; Freudenthal, “Angola,” 11:451. fifty three. JB to WAC, July 18, 1905, JDC, forty four; JB to WAC, April 7, 1906, JDC, 193 (quote); JB to WAC, July eight, 1906, JDC, 223; Claude Horton to WAC, could 15, 1906, CP 5/20; Horton to WAC, June five, 1906, CP 5/21; Horton to WAC, July 7, 1906, CP 5/22.

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