A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present

By Richard J. Reid

Up to date and revised to stress long term views on present concerns dealing with the continent, the hot 2nd version of A heritage of contemporary Africa recounts the entire breadth of Africa's political, monetary, and social heritage during the last centuries.

  • Adopts a long term method of present matters, stressing the significance of nineteenth-century and deeper indigenous dynamics in explaining Africa's later twentieth-century challenges
  • Places a better specialise in African supplier, specially through the colonial encounter
  • Includes extra in-depth assurance of non-Anglophone Africa
  • Offers multiplied assurance of the post-colonial period to take account of contemporary advancements, together with the clash in Darfur and the political unrest of 2011 in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya

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Map 12 Egypt and the Nile Valley c. 1800. From J. E. Flint (ed. ) Cambridge heritage of Africa. Vol. five: c. 1790–c. 1870 (Cambridge, 1976), p. 12, Map 1; © 1976 by way of Cambridge college Press. Reprinted with permission from Cambridge college Press. meanwhile, Muhammad Ali additionally seemed southward, into Sudan: within the early 1820s, a sequence of campaigns observed Egyptian forces overcoming the Funj sultanate, in addition to the final remnants of Mameluke competition. In 1824, the Egyptian capital was once verified at Khartoum, the place the Blue and White Niles meet. extra southward incursions could proceed within the many years to return, towards Kordofan and into the Nuba mountains, whereas Khartoum-based investors and squaddies might succeed in so far as the lacustrine kingdoms of East Africa through the 1860s and 1870s; Egyptian rule of Sudan was once basically shattered via the Mahdist insurrection within the Eighteen Eighties, tested in bankruptcy 7. Importantly, the Egyptian presence in either Sudan and the crimson Sea facilitated a ramification of exchange, with many changing into wealthy at the proceeds of the nearby slave and ivory trades alongside the Nile, fed by way of incursions into south Sudan, and the eastward-bound trade at the crimson Sea, more and more utilized by Europeans as a path to India and East Asia. Egyptian enlargement in Sudan may additionally result in clash with the opposite nice increasing country within the area, specifically Ethiopia lower than emperors Tewodros and Yohannes. In time, it was once the economic and strategic significance of the purple Sea to the British particularly which might be the undoing of the autonomous Egypt created by means of Muhammad Ali – and accordingly he continually hostile the construction of a canal linking the purple Sea to the Mediterranean; yet even sooner than this, he used to be a reason for trouble in ecu capitals, the place he used to be perceived as turning into over-mighty and a risk to balance within the area. The British, additionally, had dedicated themselves to the protection and upkeep of the ever-weakening Ottoman empire, and Muhammad Ali had to be delivered to heel. It was once Muhammad Ali’s growth into the Levant within the early 1830s that triggered nice nervousness in Istanbul: an Ottoman day trip dispatched in 1839 to wrest the provinces of Syria and Palestine from Egyptian keep watch over resulted in defeat and humiliation for the sultan, at which aspect Britain and several other ecu allies stepped in to strength Muhammad Ali to withdraw. within the overdue 1830s and early 1840s, he had his wings clipped even additional while he used to be compelled to lessen the dimensions of his military – from as regards to 200,000 males to a couple 18,000 – and to finish the monopolies he had arrange which excluded Europeans from Egyptian markets. This successfully ended Muhammad Ali’s business targets, and from the 1840s onward the Egyptian economic system turned either principally agricultural and uncovered to ever better eu impression and certainly administration. The Egypt he had created was once purely partly “modernized,” constrained by way of eu wariness of this “oriental despot” and vulnerable to eu intervention; it used to be a trend which was once repeated throughout Islamic North Africa, and finally brought on a profound cleavage inside Islam itself.

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